There are many different types of granulated sugar. Some of these are used only by the food industry and professional bakers and are not available in the supermarket. The types of granulated sugars differ in crystal size. Each crystal size provides unique functional characteristics that make the sugar appropriate for a specific foodâ€™s special need.
Regular or White Sugar, Extra Fine or Fine Sugar
â€œRegularâ€ or white sugar, is the sugar found in every home and is the sugar called for in most recipes. The food industry stipulates â€œregularâ€ sugar to be â€œextra fineâ€ or â€œfineâ€ because small crystals are not susceptible to caking.
Fruit sugar is slightly finer than â€œregularâ€ sugar and is used in dry mixes such as gelatin, pudding desserts, and powdered drinks. Fruit sugar has a more uniform small crystal size than â€œregularâ€ sugar. The uniformity of crystal size prevents separation or settling of larger crystals to the bottom of the box, an important quality in dry mixes.
Bakers Special Sugar
The crystal size of Bakers Special is even finer than that of fruit sugar. As its name suggests, it was developed specially for the baking industry. Bakers Special is used for sugaring doughnuts and cookies, as well as in some commercial cake recipes to create a fine crumb texture.
Superfine, Ultrafine, or Bar Sugar
This sugarâ€™s crystal size is the finest of all the types of granulated white sugar. It is ideal for delicately textured cakes and meringues, as well as for sweetening fruits and iced-drinks since it dissolves easily. In England, a sugar very similar to superfine sugar is known as caster or castor, named after the type of shaker in which it is often packaged.
Confectioners or Powdered Sugar
This sugar is granulated sugar ground to a smooth powder and then sifted. It contains about 3% cornstarch to prevent caking. Powdered sugar is ground into three different degrees of fineness. The confectioners sugar available in supermarkets â€“ 10X â€“ is the finest of the three and is used in icings, confections and whipping cream. The other two types of powdered sugar are used by industrial bakers.
As its name implies, the crystal size of coarse sugar is larger than that of â€œregularâ€ sugar. Coarse sugar is recovered when molasses-rich, sugar syrups high in sucrose are allowed to crystallize. The large crystal size of coarse sugar makes it highly resistant to color change or inversion (natural breakdown to fructose and glucose) at cooking and baking temperatures. These characteristics are important in making fondants, confections and liquors.
Another large crystal sugar, sanding sugar, is used mainly in the baking and confectionery industries as a sprinkle on top of baked goods. The large crystals reflect light and give the product a sparkling appearance.
1 vanilla bean, whole or scraped
2 cups granulated sugar
If vanilla bean is whole, slice down side of bean with back of knife and scrape seeds into airtight container with the sugar. Bury bean in sugar and seal tightly with lid. Let sit for 1 to 2 weeks. Use as regular, granulated sugar.
This sugar is raw sugar which has been partially processed, where only the surface molasses has been washed off. It has a blond color and mild brown sugar flavor, and is often used in tea and other beverages.
Brown Sugar (light and dark)
Brown sugar is a soft textured sugar made with a combination of white sugar and molasses. The two most common types of brown sugar are light and dark. The lighter the brown sugar is, the more delicate the flavor. Dark brown sugar has a deeper color and stronger molasses flavor than light brown sugar. Brown sugar tends to clump because it contains more moisture than white sugar.
Muscovado or Barbados Sugar
Muscovado sugar, a British specialty brown sugar, is very dark brown and has a particularly strong molasses flavor. The crystals are slightly coarser and stickier in texture than â€œregularâ€ brown sugar.
Free-flowing Brown Sugars
Fine, powder-like brown sugars that are less moist than “regular” brown sugar. Since it is less moist, it does not clump and is free-flowing like white sugar.
Popular in England, Demerara sugar is a light brown sugar with large golden crystals, which are slightly sticky from the adhering molasses. It is often used in tea, coffee, or on top of hot cereals.
There are several types of liquid sugar. Liquid sugar (sucrose) is white granulated sugar that has been dissolved in water before it is used. Liquid sugar is ideal for products whose recipes first require sugar to be dissolved. Amber liquid sugar is darker in color and can be used in foods where brown color is desired.
Sucrose can be split into its two component sugars (glucose and fructose). This process is called inversion, and the product is called invert sugar. Commercial invert sugar is a liquid product that contains equal amounts of glucose and fructose. Because fructose is sweeter than either glucose or sucrose, invert sugar is sweeter than white sugar. Commercial liquid invert sugars are prepared as different mixtures of sucrose and invert sugar. For example total invert sugar is half glucose and half fructose, while 50% invert sugar (half of the sucrose has been inverted) is one-half sucrose, one-quarter glucose and one-quarter fructose. Invert sugar is used mainly by food manufacturers to retard the crystallization of sugar and to retain moisture in the packaged food. Which particular invert sugar is used is determined by which function â€“ retarding crystallization or retaining moisture â€“ is required.
Home cooks make invert sugar whenever a recipe calls for a sugar to be boiled gently in a mixture of water and lemon juice.
Caramelized Sugar or Burnt Sugar
Sugar caramelized by cooking at high temperature. It is not available for purchase and must be made at home.
Source for some of this article: sugar.org